Who Supplied Chemical and Biological Agents to Iraq

The following report lists all the Chemical Biological Agents exported to Iraq from February 8,1985 to January 31, 1989, by the United States.

103d Congress/2d Session, SENATE, “U.S. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE -RELATED DUAL USE EXPORTS TO IRAQ AND THEIR POSSIBLE IMPACT ON THE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF THE PERSIAN GULF WAR,” A Report of Chairman Donald W. Reigle, Jr., and Ranking Member Alfonse D’Amato of the Committee On Banking, Housing, And Urban Affairs, with respect to Export Administration, United States Senate (198-pages), May 25, 1994.

Here are the dates of shipments and their destinations in Iraq:

Centers for Disease Control compiled a listing of biological materials shipped to Iraq prior to the Gulf War. The listing covers the period from October 1, 1984 (when the CDC began keeping records) through October 13,1993.

These Biological Toxins were sent to:

University of Basrah, College of Science, Department of Biology

Officers City Al-Muthanna, Quartetret 710, Street 13, Close 69 House 28/1, Baghdad, Iraq.

University of Baghdad, College of Medicine, Department of Microbiology.

Basrah, Iraq.

Minister of Health, Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq.

The materials sent were as follows: Enterococcus faecalis; Enterococcus faecium; Enterococcus avium; Enterococcus raffinosus; Enterococcus gallinarium; Enterococcus durans; Enterococcus hirae; Streptococcus Bovis (etiologic); Botulum toxoid; 3 yeast cultures; Lyophilized arbovirus seed; West Nile Fever Virus; antigen and antisera (r.rickettsii and r.typhi);

The Report Lists additional shipments to following destinations with dates:

February 8, 1985: Iraq Atomic Energy Agency.

February 22, 1985: Ministry of Higher Education.

August 31, 1987: State Company for Drug Industries.

July 11, 1988: Iraq Atomic Energy Commission.

April 26, 1988: Iraq Atomic Energy Commission.

August 31, 1987: Iraq Atomic Energy Commission.

September 29, 1988: Ministry of Trade.

January 17, 1989: Iraq Atomic Energy Commission.

January 31, 1989:Iraq Atomic Energy Commission.

“Included in the approved sales are the following biological materials (which have been considered by various nations for use in war):”

Baciluss Anthracis.

Clostridium Botulinum.

Histoplasma Capsulatum.

Brucella Melitensis.

Clostridium Perfringens.

In addition several shipments of Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) and genetic materials, as well as human and bacterial DNA, were shipped directly to the Atomic Energy Commission.

Chemical Warfare Agents Detection:

“The dispersal of the chemical agents and other hazardous substances is controlled by factors such as topography, wind velocity, direction, temperature, precipitation, vertical temperature gradient, and atmospheric humidity. . . . In addition, as confirmed by unclassified U.S. satellite imagery, debris from the Coalition bombings were upwardly dispersed, rather than downwardly dispersed ass would occur in offensive use, causing chemical agents to be carried by upper atmosphere currents and distributed as ‘traces’ of chemical fallout over ‘down weather’ positions. Czech and French officials confirmed detections of these chemicals during the war.”

Possible Chemical Agents dispersed in atmosphere:

Chemical nerve agents. The report says: “The following is a list of a number of agents which the Iraqi government could have combined or which could have been combined in the atmosphere as a result of Coalition bombings: Sarin(GB); Soman (GD) Tabun (GA); and VX.

Vesicants and Blood Agents: Lewisite Cyanogen chloride; and Hydrogen Cyanide.

Blister Agents: Mustard gas.

An article published in Scientific American, July 1991 issue stated that NOAA Satellites were banned to relay weather information for several days to the scientists involved in environmental studies. This was partly a cover-up for the bombings of the Oil Fields in Kuwait.

The writer is a Sydney-based freelance journalist and a political analyst.